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Dr Tim Rees
Senior Lecturer

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Key publications



Rees, T., Salvatore, J., Coffee, P., Haslam, S.A., Sargent, A., Dobson, T. (2013). Reversing Downward Performance Spirals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 400-403.
Rees, T., Freeman, P., Bell, S., Bunney, R. (2012). Three Generalizability Studies of the Components of Perceived Coach Support. Jounal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.

Abstract:
Three Generalizability Studies of the Components of Perceived Coach Support

Coaches are important providers of social support, but what leads us to perceive our coaches as supportive or unsupportive? We investigated the extent to which perceptions of coach support reflect characteristics of athletes and coaches, as well as relational components. In three studies, athletes judged the actual or hypothetical supportiveness of various coaches. The methods of generalizability theory permitted us to conclude that perceptions of coach support primarily reflected relational components, with characteristics both of athletes and coaches also independently playing (lesser) roles. These findings suggest that athletes may systematically disagree on the supportiveness of their coaches.
 Abstract.
Coffee, P., Rees, T. (2008). Main and interactive effects of controllability and generalisability attributions upon self-efficacy. Psychol Sport Exerc, 9(6), 775-785.

Abstract:
Main and interactive effects of controllability and generalisability attributions upon self-efficacy

Objectives: This study examined main effects of controllability and interactive effects of controllability and generalisability attributions upon self-efficacy.Design: a cross-sectional study design was employed with pre-competition self-efficacy assessed at least one week prior to attributions and subsequent self-efficacy.Method: Participants (N = 360; mean age 21.64, SD = 6.96 years) completed measures of pre-competition self-efficacy (1 h prior to competition 1), attributions (1 h after competition 1) and subsequent self-efficacy (at least one week following competition 1 and 1 h prior to competition 2). All measures were completed in reference to sport competitions.Results: Demographic variables and pre-competition self-efficacy were entered as control variables in moderated hierarchical regression analyses. Results demonstrated that individuals who perceived performance as more successful, had higher subsequent self-efficacy when they generalised (Delta R-2 =.34, p<.01) causes of performance across time (stability: b =.44, p<.01), and/or across situations (globality: b =.47, p <.01), and/or perceived causes to be unique to themselves (universality: b = -.45, p<.01). Individuals who perceived performance as less successful, had higher subsequent selfefficacy when they viewed causes of performance as controllable (Delta R-2 =.08, b =.23, p<.01); an interaction (Delta R-2 =.06, p <.05) for controllability and globality (b =.20, p<.01) demonstrated that if causes were perceived to be global, higher levels of controllability were associated with higher levels of subsequent self-efficacy.Conclusion: This study provides evidence, following more Successful performances, that attributions to generalisability (stability, globality and universality) affect self-efficacy; following less successful performances, globality (a generalisability dimension) moderates the effect of con troll ability upon self-efficacy. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
 Abstract.
Coffee, P., Rees, T. (2008). The CSGU: a measure of controllability, stability, globality, and universality attributions. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 30(5), 611-641.

Abstract:
The CSGU: a measure of controllability, stability, globality, and universality attributions.

This article reports initial evidence of construct validity for a four-factor measure of attributions assessing the dimensions of controllability, stability, globality, and universality (the CSGU). In Study 1, using confirmatory factor analysis, factors were confirmed across least successful and most successful conditions. In Study 2, following less successful performances, correlations supported hypothesized relationships between subscales of the CSGU and subscales of the CDSII (McAuley, Duncan, & Russell, 1992). In Study 3, following less successful performances, moderated hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that individuals have higher subsequent self-efficacy when they perceive causes of performance as controllable, and/or specific, and/or universal. An interaction for controllability and stability demonstrated that if causes are perceived as likely to recur, it is important to perceive that causes are controllable. Researchers are encouraged to use the CSGU to examine main and interactive effects of controllability and generalizability attributions upon outcomes such as self-efficacy, emotions, and performance.
 Abstract.  Author URL

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