Publications by year
Jack J, Woodgates A, Smail O, Felix B, Lynam K, Lester A, Williams G, Bond B
(In Press). Cerebral blood flow regulation is not acutely altered after a typical number of headers in women footballers. Frontiers in Neurology
Cerebral blood flow regulation is not acutely altered after a typical number of headers in women footballers
Background: the repeated act of heading has been implicated in the link between football participation and risk of neurodegenerative disease, and acutely alters cerebrovascular outcomes in men. This study assessed whether exposure to a realistic number of headers acutely influences indices of cerebral blood flow regulation in female footballers. Methods: Nineteen female players completed a heading trial and seated control trial on two separate days. The heading trial involved six headers in one hour (one every 10 minutes), with the ball travelling at 40 ± 5 km/h. Cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia and hypocapnia was determined using serial breath holding and hyperventilation attempts. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) was assessed by scrutinizing the relationship between cerebral blood flow and mean arterial blood pressure during 5 minutes of squat stand maneuvers at 0.05 Hz. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) was quantified as the posterior cerebral artery blood velocity response to a visual search task. These outcomes were assessed before and one hour after the heading or control trial. Results: No significant time by trial interaction was present for the hypercapnic (P=0.48, ηp2=0.05) and hypocapnic (P=0.47, ηp2=0.06) challenge. Similarly, no significant interaction effect was present for any metric of dCA (P>0.12, ηp20.14, ηp2 Abstract
Weston M, Barker A, Tomlinson O, Coombes JS, Bailey TG, Bond B (In Press). Differences in cerebrovascular regulation and ventilatory responses during ramp incremental cycling in children, adolescents and adults. Journal of Applied Physiology
Chorlton R, Williams C, Denford S, Bond B
(In Press). Incorporating movement breaks into primary school classrooms; a mixed methods approach to explore the perceptions of pupils, staff and Governors. BMC Public Health
Incorporating movement breaks into primary school classrooms; a mixed methods approach to explore the perceptions of pupils, staff and Governors
Background: Public health guidelines for children advocate physical activity (PA) and the restriction of continuous sedentary time. Schools offer an attractive setting for health promotion, however school-based interventions to increase PA typically fail, and primary school children may spend most of the school day sitting down. Classroom movement breaks have been identified as an attractive opportunity to address this concern and may positively influence behaviour, but little is known about the barriers to implementing movement within lessons from a multi stakeholder perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore 1) the perceptions of primary school pupils, staff members and governors regarding classroom movement breaks, and 2) their perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing PA into the classroom. Methods: Thirty-four pupils (Key Stages 1 and 2, ages 5-7 y) took part in a focus group discussion. Sixty-four staff members and twenty governors completed a questionnaire and an optional follow up semi-structured telephone interview. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Pupils, staff members and governors expressed an enthusiasm for movement breaks provided that they were short, simple, pupil-guided and performed at the discretion of the teacher. Time and concerns regarding transitioning back to work following a movement break were identified as key barriers by pupils and staff. Governors and some staff expressed that favourable evidence for movement breaks is needed to facilitate their adoption, particularly regarding the potential for improvements in cognitive functioning or classroom behaviour. Conclusion: There is a wide appeal for classroom-based activity breaks, when delivered in a manner that is not disruptive. Future research which examines the potential benefits of such activity breaks is warranted. Abstract
Bond B, Koep J, Weston M, Barker A, Sansum K (In Press). The acute and postprandial effects of sugar moiety on vascular and metabolic health outcomes in adolescents. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Bond B, West S, Smail O (In Press). The acute influence of sucrose consumption with and without vitamin C co-ingestion on microvascular reactivity in healthy young adults. Microvascular Research
Weston M, Barker A, Tomlinson O, Coombes J, Bailey T, Bond B (In Press). The effect of exercise intensity and cardiorespiratory fitness on the kinetic response of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during exercise in healthy adults. Journal of applied physiology
Koep J, Bond B, Barker A, Ruediger S, Pizzey F, Coombes J, Bailey T
(In Press). The relationships between age, sex and cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia using traditional and kinetic-based analyses in healthy adults. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
The relationships between age, sex and cerebrovascular reactivity to hypercapnia using traditional and kinetic-based analyses in healthy adults
The effect of age and sex on intracranial and extracranial cerebrovascular function is poorly understood. We investigated the relationships between age, sex and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 73 healthy adults (18-80 years, N=39 female). CVR to hypercapnia was assessed in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound and at the internal carotid artery (ICA) using duplex ultrasound. MCA CVR was characterised by peak MCA velocity (MCAv) response per mmHg increase in end-tidal CO2, and by using a mono-exponential model to characterize the kinetics (time-constant) of the MCAv response. ICA reactivity was assessed as the relative peak increase in artery diameter. Hierarchical multiple regression determined the relationships between age, sex, and the age by sex interaction on all baseline and CVR outcomes. There was no relationship between ICA reactivity (%) with age (P=0.07), sex (P=0.56) or a moderator effect of sex on the age effect (P=0.24). MCAv CVR showed no relationship with age (P=0.59), sex (P=0.09), or an age by sex moderator effect (P=0.90). We observed a positive relationship of MCAv CVR time-constant with age (P=0.013), such that the speed of the MCA response was slower with advancing age. The present study provides comprehensive data on age and sex specific relationships with intracranial and extracranial cerebrovascular responses to hypercapnia. Despite similar MCAv CVR and ICA reactivity between sexes, kinetic responses of the MCA revealed a slower rate of adjustment with advancing age. Abstract
Bond B, Barker A, Koep J, Weston M, Lester A, Coombes J, Bailey T
(In Press). The within and between-day reliability of cerebrovascular reactivity using traditional and novel analytical approaches. Experimental Physiology
The within and between-day reliability of cerebrovascular reactivity using traditional and novel analytical approaches
Cerebrovascular reactivity of the middle cerebral artery velocity (CVR MCAv) to carbon dioxide (CO2) is a common method to assess cerebrovascular function. Yet, the approaches used to calculate CVR outcomes vary. The aim of this study was to explore the within and between-day reliability of traditional CVR outcomes. The second aim was to explore the reliability of novel kinetic-based analyses. Healthy adults (n=10, 22.3±3.4 years) completed assessments of CVR over four minutes using a fixed fraction of inspired CO2 (6%). This was repeated across four separate visits (between-day), and on one visit measures were repeated 2.5 hours later (within-day). No mean biases were present between assessments for traditional CVR metrics, expressed as absolute (cm/s/mmHg) or relative (%/mmHg) outcomes (minute-3, minute-4, peak 1 second, peak 30 second) (between-day: P>0.14, ηp20.22, d>0.27). Absolute, rather than relative CVR, yielded the most reproducible parameters (coefficient of variation: 8.1-13.2% versus 14-83% respectively). There were significant differences between CVR outcomes (P0.89) dependent on the time point used to determine CVR, as a steady state MCAv response was rarely observed. Furthermore, the MCAv response was not reproducible within an individual (kappa=0.15, P=0.09). No mean differences were present for novel kinetic outcomes (amplitude, time-delay, time constant) (between-day: P>0.05, d0.38, d Abstract
Kranen SH, Oliveira RS, Bond B, Williams CA, Barker AR (2023). The effect of 4 weeks of high‐intensity interval training and 2 weeks of detraining on cardiovascular disease risk factors in male adolescents. Experimental Physiology
(2022). Associations between physical activity and sedentary time with endothelial function, arterial stiffness, arterial elasticity, and clustered cardiometabolic risk in children: the ALSPAC Study.
Associations between physical activity and sedentary time with endothelial function, arterial stiffness, arterial elasticity, and clustered cardiometabolic risk in children: the ALSPAC Study
Introduction: Evidence for associations between physical activity (PA) or sedentary time (ST) and vascular health in paediatric populations is of low quality due to the predominance of self-report measures of PA time and intensities, small sample sizes, and a lack of control of confounding variables. This thesis examined associations between device-derived PA and ST with vascular outcomes and a clustered cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score in a population sample, with adjustment for covariates. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 4,277 children (2,226 girls) aged 10.6 ± 0.2 y from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Clustered CMR was measured at age 9 y. Vascular outcomes (flow mediated dilation, distensibility coefficient, and pulse wave velocity) were measured age 10 y. Light and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and ST were measured via accelerometers at age 11 y. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between exposures and outcomes, with PA and ST entered as compositional exposure variables and non-compositional variables (min∙day-1). Results: Neither light PA, MVPA or ST were significantly associated with any of the vascular outcomes in the adjusted compositional and non-compositional models. The proportion of time spent in MVPA and ST (relative to the remaining activity behaviours) were inversely (b=-0.126; P=0.001) and positively (b=0.136; P=0.016) associated with CMR in the whole group analysis, respectively. MVPA was negatively associated with CMR in both boys (b=-0.144; P=0.011) and girls (b=-0.110; P=0.032), but only girls had a positive association between ST and CMR (b=0.199; P=0.005). In the non-compositional models, MVPA was inversely associated with CMR in the whole group analysis (b=-0.002; P=0.012). In the girls, ST was positively (b=0.001; P=0.035), and LPA was inversely (b=-0.001; P=0.035) associated with CMR. Conclusion: Longer exposure to CMR factors during adolescence may be needed to establish relationships between PA and ST with vascular outcomes. These findings support interventions that promote MVPA and minimise ST for reducing CMR in children. Prospective studies are required to understand the causal directions. Abstract
Koep JL, Taylor CE, Coombes JS, Bond B, Ainslie PN, Bailey TG
(2022). Autonomic control of cerebral blood flow: fundamental comparisons between peripheral and cerebrovascular circulations in humans. J Physiol
Autonomic control of cerebral blood flow: fundamental comparisons between peripheral and cerebrovascular circulations in humans.
Understanding the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to cerebral blood flow (CBF) control is challenging, and interpretations are unclear. The identification of calcium channels and adrenoreceptors within cerebral vessels has led to common misconceptions that the function of these receptors and actions mirror those of the peripheral vasculature. This review outlines the fundamental differences and complex actions of cerebral autonomic activation compared with the peripheral circulation. Anatomical differences, including the closed nature of the cerebrovasculature, and differential adrenoreceptor subtypes, density, distribution and sensitivity, provide evidence that measures on peripheral sympathetic nerve activity cannot be extrapolated to the cerebrovasculature. Cerebral sympathetic nerve activity seems to act opposingly to the peripheral circulation, mediated at least in part by changes in intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. Additionally, heterogeneity in cerebral adrenoreceptor distribution highlights region-specific autonomic regulation of CBF. Compensatory chemo- and autoregulatory responses throughout the cerebral circulation, and interactions with parasympathetic nerve activity are unique features to the cerebral circulation. This crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic reflexes acts to ensure adequate perfusion of CBF to rising and falling perfusion pressures, optimizing delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the brain, while attempting to maintain blood volume and intracranial pressure. Herein, we highlight the distinct similarities and differences between autonomic control of cerebral and peripheral blood flow, and the regional specificity of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation within the cerebrovasculature. Future research directions are outlined with the goal to further our understanding of autonomic control of CBF in humans. Abstract
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Koep JL, Coombes JS, Barker AR, Taylor CE, Pizzey FK, Ruediger SL, Bond B, Bailey TG (2022). Intracranial Cerebrovascular Reactivity by Traditional and Novel Methods in Young, Middle, and Old Aged Healthy Males and Females. The FASEB Journal, 36(S1).
Duncombe SL, Barker AR, Bond B, Earle R, Varley-Campbell J, Vlachopoulos D, Walker JL, Weston KL, Stylianou M
(2022). School-based high-intensity interval training programs in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE
School-based high-intensity interval training programs in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
1) to investigate the effectiveness of school-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions in promoting health outcomes of children and adolescents compared with either a control group or other exercise modality; and 2) to explore the intervention characteristics and process outcomes of published school-based HIIT interventions.
We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science from inception until 31 March 2021. Studies were eligible if 1) participants aged 5–17 years old; 2) a HIIT intervention within a school setting ≥ 2 weeks duration; 3) a control or comparative exercise group; 4) health-related, cognitive, physical activity, nutrition, or program evaluation outcomes; and 5) original research published in English. We conducted meta-analyses between HIIT and control groups for all outcomes with ≥ 4 studies and meta-regressions for all outcomes with ≥ 10 studies. We narratively synthesised results between HIIT and comparative exercise groups.
Fifty-four papers met eligibility criteria, encompassing 42 unique studies (35 randomised controlled trials; 36 with a high risk of bias). Meta-analyses indicated significant improvements in waist circumference (mean difference (MD) = -2.5cm), body fat percentage (MD = -1.7%), body mass index (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -1.0), cardiorespiratory fitness (SMD = +1.0), resting heart rate (MD = -5bpm), homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance (MD = -0.7), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (SMD = -0.9) for HIIT compared to the control group. Our narrative synthesis indicated mixed findings between HIIT and other comparative exercise groups.
School-based HIIT is effective for improving several health outcomes. Future research should address the paucity of information on physical activity and nutrition outcomes and focus on the integration and long-term effectiveness of HIIT interventions within school settings.
Trial registration number
Weston M, Koep J, Lester A, Barker A, Bond B
(2022). The acute effect of exercise intensity on peripheral and cerebral vascular function in healthy adults. Journal of applied physiology
The acute effect of exercise intensity on peripheral and cerebral vascular function in healthy adults
The acute effect of exercise intensity on cerebrovascular reactivity, and whether this mirrors changes in peripheral vascular function, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the acute effect of exercise intensity on cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and peripheral vascular function in healthy young adults (n=10, 6 females, 22.7 ± 3.5 years). Participants completed four experimental conditions on separate days: high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) with intervals performed at 75% maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max; HIIE1), HIIE with intervals performed at 90% V̇O2max (HIIE2), continuous moderate intensity exercise (MIE) at 60% V̇O2max and a sedentary control condition (CON). All exercise conditions were completed on a cycle ergometer and matched for time (30 min) and average intensity (60% V̇O2max). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and CVR of the middle cerebral artery were measured before exercise, and one- and three hours post-exercise. CVR was assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to both hypercapnia (6% carbon dioxide breathing) and hypocapnia (hyperventilation). FMD was significantly elevated above baseline one and three hours following both HIIE conditions (P0.33). CVR to both hypercapnia and hypocapnia, and when expressed across the end-tidal CO2 range, was unchanged in all conditions, at all time points (all P>0.14). In conclusion, these novel findings show that the acute increases in peripheral vascular function following HIIE, compared to MIE, were not mirrored by changes in cerebrovascular reactivity, which was unaltered following all exercise conditions in healthy young adults. Abstract
(2022). The acute influence of boxing on brain health parameters in university amateur boxers.
The acute influence of boxing on brain health parameters in university amateur boxers
The present thesis investigated the acute influence of amateur boxing on brain health parameters across two separate studies. The first study examined 20 university boxers visuomotor performance and neurocognitive function before and after 3 rounds of competitive amateur boxing. Visuomotor performance was assessed via a computer guided precision grip task, both with and without visual feedback, whilst neurocognitive function was assessed via a revised SCAT5 questionnaire and balance task. Boxers presented with no difference in average force or reaction time in both precision grip tasks, although performance error was greater after boxing when compared to pre boxing measures in the visual feedback precision grip task (P Abstract
Burley MJ, Blackwell J, Bond B, Williams C, Stephens FB (2022). The effect of various breath‐hold techniques on the cardiorespiratory response to facial immersion in humans. Experimental Physiology, 108(1), 50-62.
(2021). Acute and Long-Term Effects of Resistance Exercise on Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation.
Acute and Long-Term Effects of Resistance Exercise on Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) describes the active maintenance of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in response to rapid, systemic blood pressure (BP) fluctuations. dCA capacity has been linked to neurological pathologies such as dementia, stroke and traumatic brain injury and may be implicated as a target for therapeutic strategies. Resistance exercise is a common leisure activity with growing popularity and forms the basis for many strength sports as well as being recommended by public health institutions. Heavy resistance exercise is known to induce large transient increases in BP which are translated into elevations in CBF. dCA must act effectively to minimise the BP oscillations which are translated into the cerebrovasculature, however CBF is still significantly elevated which indicates that it is not entirely effective at maintaining a constant CBF. This begs the question: does resistance exercise lead to altered dCA capacity both acutely and/ or at baseline following years of training? This thesis is formed of two main sections. Firstly, the within- and between-day reliability of dCA metrics phase, gain and normalised gain at each phase of the cardiac cycle were determined using repeat squat-stand manoeuvres (SSM) to elicit orthostatic BP fluctuations. As dCA can be induced, measured and analysed with a variety of methods, understanding the reliability of the measures used is crucial when interpreting one’s results. SSM were utilised to elicit BP fluctuations at 0.05 and 0.10Hz due to the excellent signal-to-noise ratio which they produce. The novelty of this work is largely attributed to the exploration of dCA metrics during systole and diastole as well as mean values, both within- and between-day. Secondly, the acute effects of resistance exercise and long-term effects of regular resistance exercise on dCA are examined. Long-term effects were inferred by comparing phase, gain and normalised gain in resistance trained vs. recreationally active individuals by use of SSM in a rested condition. Acute effects were explored by comparing phase, gain and normalised gain pre-exercise to follow-up measures 10 and 45 minutes post- Abstract
exercise in both groups. The exercise protocol consisted of four sets of ten repetition back squats at 70% of the individuals one-repetition maximum. This work indicates that dCA induced by SSM at 0.05 and 0.10Hz produce excellent reproducibility of phase, gain and normalised gain within- and between-day when measured as the mean of the cardiac cycle. Diastolic and systolic outcomes were also largely reproducible, although notably less so than mean values. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline dCA between groups found no significant differences in phase, gain or normalised gain at any phase of the cardiac cycle. Furthermore, no group interaction effect was identified in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise, suggesting that the post-exercise effects on dCA were similar in both demographics. dCA was largely unaltered following resistance exercise; however, gain and normalised gain were significantly elevated when measured as the mean and systolic section of the cardiac cycle during 0.10Hz SSM only. This difference was only present 10, but not 45 minutes post-exercise which indicates rapid recovery towards baseline. Further research is warranted, but these preliminary findings suggest that resistance exercise may acutely impair sympathetic nervous activity responsible for CBF regulation, although this does not appear to lead to alterations at baseline.
(2021). Exploring the acceptability and feasibility of implementing physical activity in primary school classrooms – a Somerset Activity and Sport Partnership Scheme.
Exploring the acceptability and feasibility of implementing physical activity in primary school classrooms – a Somerset Activity and Sport Partnership Scheme.
Purpose: the purpose of this study was: 1) to explore the perceptions of primary school staff members, pupils and governors in regard to classroom based physical activity (CBPA); 2) to understand the multiple levels of factors impacting these stakeholder’s acceptability of interventions and 3) to collaboratively design a successful classroom movement intervention that is accepted by the school governors, feasible for teachers and enjoyable for the pupils, with the main aim of breaking up continuous uninterrupted
classroom sedentary time.
Methods: Sixty-four staff members and twenty governors completed a questionnaire and 7 participants (n=5 staff and n=2 governors) took part in a further follow up semi structured telephone interview. Thirty-four Key Stage (KS) 1 and KS2 pupils from one federated village school in Somerset took part in a focus group discussion.
Results: all staff members, governors and pupils were aware of the value of PA and had similar barriers for implementation within the classroom environment. Two main barriers that were reported by the majority of staff members are time and transitioning back to work following movement. In addition, suggestions for increasing adoption and implementation were identified, for example, short and simple breaks, pupil guided choice and performed at the teacher’s discretion. Furthermore, the need for more sufficient evidence regarding pupil cognition following a movement break were requested by both governors and staff.
Key words: qualitative research, classroom, movement breaks, stakeholders, prolonged sedentary time
Abbreviations: Physical activity (PA), Key Stage 1 (KS1), Key Stage 2 (KS2)
Barker A, Bond B, Duncombe S, Earle R, Stylianou M, Varley-Campbell J, Vlachopoulos D, Walker J, Weston K (2021). School-based high-intensity interval training programs in children and adolescents: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 24, s78-s79.
Kranen SH, Oliveira RS, Bond B, Williams CA, Barker AR (2021). The acute effect of high‐ and moderate‐intensity interval exercise on vascular function before and after a glucose challenge in adolescents. Experimental Physiology, 106(4), 913-924.
Vanhatalo A, Blackwell J, Bailey SJ, Wylie LJ, Bond B, Nyberg M, Jones AM
(2020). Dietary Nitrate Counteracts the Elevated Blood Pressure Response to Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition in Humans. Author URL
Vanhatalo A, Blackwell J, Bailey SJ, Wylie LJ, Bond B, Nyberg M, Jones AM (2020). Dietary Nitrate Counteracts the Elevated Blood Pressure Response to Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition in Humans. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 52(7S), 232-233.
(2020). The Vascular Response to Consumption of Different Sugar Types in Adolescents.
The Vascular Response to Consumption of Different Sugar Types in Adolescents
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of mortality and the underlying atherosclerotic disease process which precedes overt CVD originates in youth. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are associated with CVD risk factors in youth and SSB intake is a key contributor to added dietary sugar intake in teenagers in the United Kingdom. Endothelial dysfunction is a prerequisite for atherosclerosis and previous research demonstrates that SSB consumption acutely impairs endothelial function. However, these studies have predominantly focused on adult populations, or have used a glucose bolus which is not representative of the sugar found in commercially available SSBs. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the influence of different dietary sugars found in SSBs on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes and then observe whether the sugar type influences the cardiometabolic responses to a subsequent test meal challenge. This thesis also determined the reliability of measures for the assessment of macrovascular (flow-mediated dilation; FMD) and microvascular (laser Doppler flowmetry) function. Chapter 4: Assessed the within-day and between day reliability of the simultaneous assessment of macrovascular and microvascular function. The within-day and between-day typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation were as follows: FMD, 7.2% and 8.0%; peak reactive hyperaemia (PRH), 24.5% and 26.1%. These results determined that the reliability of outcomes in this study were consistent with existing paediatric data. Chapter 5: There was a large (ηp2=0.27) but not significant (P=0.06) interaction effect for FMD. There was a non-significant difference between the sucrose and control trials for FMD at 1 hour post drink consumption (P=0.06) and 3 hours post test meal consumption (P=0.09) but there was a medium effect at both times with effect sizes of 0.77 and 0.65, respectively, where FMD increased following sucrose consumption. PRH increased 1 hour post drink consumption in the fructose (P=0.01), glucose (P=0.04) and sucrose trials (P=0.04) when compared to control. PRH was greater in the fructose trial when compared to the control (P=0.03), glucose (P=0.01) and sucrose (P=0.02) trials. These findings suggest that SSB intake acutely improves macro- and micro- vascular function in adolescents. Overall, these findings provide important information in regards to the effects of SSBs on macrovascular and microvascular function in adolescents. Abstract
Koep JL, Barker AR, Banks R, Banger RR, Sansum KM, Weston ME, Bond B (2020). The reliability of a breath‐hold protocol to determine cerebrovascular reactivity in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, 48(9), 544-552.
Aboo Bakkar Z, Fulford J, Gates PE, Jackman SR, Jones AM, Bond B, Bowtell JL
(2019). Montmorency cherry supplementation attenuates vascular dysfunction induced by prolonged forearm occlusion in overweight, middle-aged men. J Appl Physiol (1985)
Montmorency cherry supplementation attenuates vascular dysfunction induced by prolonged forearm occlusion in overweight, middle-aged men.
Flavonoid supplementation improves brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), but it is not known whether flavonoids protect against vascular dysfunction induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and associated respiratory burst. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, we investigated whether 4 wk supplementation with freeze-dried Montmorency cherry (MC) attenuated suppression of FMD after IR induced by prolonged forearm occlusion. Twelve physically inactive overweight, middle-aged men (52.8 ± 5.8 yr, BMI: 28.1 ± 5.3 kg/m2) consumed MC (235 mg/day anthocyanins) or placebo capsules for 4 wk, with supplementation blocks separated by 4 wk washout. Before and after each supplementation block, FMD responses and plasma nitrate and nitrite ([ NO2- ]) concentrations were measured at baseline and 15, 30, and 45 min after prolonged (20 min) forearm occlusion. FMD response was significantly depressed by the prolonged occlusion ( P < 0.001). After a 45-min reperfusion, FMD was restored to baseline levels after MC (ΔFMD presupplementation: -30.5 ± 8.4%, postsupplementation: -0.6 ± 9.5%) but not placebo supplementation (ΔFMD presupplementation: -11.6 ± 10.6, postsupplementation: -25.4 ± 4.0%; condition × supplement interaction: P = 0.038). Plasma [ NO2- ] decreased after prolonged occlusion but recovered faster after MC compared with placebo (Δ45 min to baseline; MC: presupplementation: -15.3 ± 9.6, postsupplementation: -6.2 ± 8.1; Placebo: presupplementation: -16.3 ± 5.9, postsupplementation: -27.7 ± 11.1 nmol/l; condition × supplement × time interaction: P = 0.033). Plasma peroxiredoxin concentration ([Prx2]) was significantly higher after MC (presupplementation: 22.8 ± 1.4, postsupplementation: 28.0 ± 2.4 ng/ml, P = 0.029) but not after placebo supplementation (presupplementation: 22.1 ± 2.2, postsupplementation: 23.7 ± 1.5 ng/ml). In conclusion, 4 wk MC supplementation enhanced recovery of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation after IR, in parallel with faster recovery of plasma [ NO2- ], suggesting NO dependency. These protective effects seem to be related to increased plasma [Prx2], presumably conferring protection against the respiratory burst during reperfusion. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to demonstrate that 4 wk of Montmorency cherry powder supplementation exerted protective effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation after transient ischemia-reperfusion injury in overweight, physically inactive, nonmedicated, hypertensive middle-aged men. These effects seem to be due to increased nitric oxide availability, as evidenced by higher plasma nitrite concentration and peak arterial diameter during the flow-mediated dilation measurement. This may be a consequence of increased concentration of peroxiredoxin and other antioxidant systems and, hence, reduced reactive oxygen species exposure. Abstract
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Kranen SH, Bond B, Williams CA, Barker AR
(2019). Reliability of low-flow vasoreactivity in the brachial artery of adolescents. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound
Reliability of low-flow vasoreactivity in the brachial artery of adolescents
Purpose: Macrovascular endothelial function is commonly assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and is nitric oxide (NO) dependent. However, the vasoreactivity to low flow during the FMD protocol may complement FMD interpretation. This study aimed to investigate in adolescents: (1) the day-to-day reliability of low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) and composite vessel reactivity (CVR); and (2) the relationship between L-FMC and FMD. Methods: a retrospective analysis of data on 27 adolescents (14.3 ± 0.6 year, 12 males) was performed. Participants had two repeat measures, on separate days, of macrovascular function using high-resolution ultrasound for assessment of L-FMC, FMD, and CVR. Results: on average, the L-FMC response was vasoconstriction on both days (−0.59 ± 2.22% and −0.16 ± 1.50%, respectively). In contrast, an inconsistent response to low flow (vasoconstriction, dilation, or no change) was observed on an individual level. Cohen's Kappa revealed poor agreement for classifying the L-FMC measurement between visits (k = 0.04, P >.05). Assessment of the actual vessel diameter was robust with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% (baseline and peak) and 2.7% (low-flow). The between-day correlation coefficient between measures was r =.18, r =.96 and r =.52 for L-FMC, FMD, and CVR, respectively. No significant correlation between FMD and L-FMC was observed for either visit (r = −.06 and r = −.07, respectively; P >.05). Conclusion: in adolescents, the low-flow vasoreactivity is inconsistent between days. Whereas the actual vessel diameter is reproducible, the measurement of L-FMC and CVR has poor between-day reliability compared to FMD. Finally, L-FMC, and FMD are not significantly correlated. Abstract
Koep J, Barker A, Bond B, Coombes J, Bailey T (2019). Shear stress and cerebrovascular function during acute isometric exercise: the role of exercise intensity and aging. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22
Cockcroft EJ, Bond B, Williams CA, Harris S, Jackman SR, Armstrong N, Barker AR
(2019). The effects of two weeks high-intensity interval training on fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in adolescent boys: a pilot study. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
The effects of two weeks high-intensity interval training on fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in adolescent boys: a pilot study
. Current evidence of metabolic health benefits of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are limited to longer training periods or conducted in overweight youth. This study assessed 1) fasting and postprandial insulin and glucose before and after 2 weeks of HIIT in healthy adolescent boys, and 2) the relationship between pre intervention health outcomes and the effects of the HIIT intervention.
. Seven healthy boys (age:14.3 ± 0.3 y, BMI: 21.6 ± 2.6, 3 participants classified as overweight) completed 6 sessions of HIIT over 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (IR) and blood glucose and insulin responses to a Mixed Meal Tolerance Test (MMTT) were assessed before (PRE), 20 h and 70 h after (POST) the final HIIT session.
. Two weeks of HIIT had no effect on fasting plasma glucose, insulin or IR at 20 h and 70 h POST HIIT, nor insulin and glucose response to MMTT (all P > 0.05). There was a strong negative correlation between PRE training IR and change in IR after HIIT (r = − 0.96, P < 0.05).
. Two weeks of HIIT did not elicit improvements to fasting or postprandial glucose or insulin health outcomes in a group of adolescent boys. However the negative correlation between PRE IR and improvements after HIIT suggest that interventions of this type may be effective in adolescents with raised baseline IR.
Cockcroft E, Bond B, Williams CA, Harris S, Jackman SR, Armstrong N, Barker AR (2019). The effects of two weeks high-intensity interval training on fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in adolescent boys; a pilot study.
(2019). The influence of sugar sweetened beverage consumption on cerebrovascular function and postprandial health in adolescents.
The influence of sugar sweetened beverage consumption on cerebrovascular function and postprandial health in adolescents
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of non-communicable diseases worldwide, with the underlying atherosclerotic process originating in youth. Children and adolescents with CVD risk factors have impaired endothelial function, which is implicated in the process of atherosclerosis. Habitual sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with the progression of CVD risk factors in youth, and adolescents consume the highest quantities of SSBs. Acute SSB consumption results in vascular dysfunction in adults, though the effects in youth are unknown. It is thought that exposure to CVD risk factors in youth may impair cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), possibly having implications for future CVD risk. It is also unknown whether the types of sugar in SSBs have different consequences on vascular function. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of sugar moiety on cerebrovascular function in adolescents, following consumption of a sugary drink and subsequent meal. Data on the reliability of CVR in a paediatric population was needed to first establish if this was a reliable measure of endothelial function. The purpose of this thesis was to: 1) examine the within and between-day reliability of a breath-hold protocol to assess CVR in adolescents. 2) examine the acute effect of sugar moiety (fructose, sucrose, glucose) on CVR and putative blood outcomes, and 3) examine the effects of SSB consumption on postprandial health in adolescents. Chapter 3 examined the reliability of a breath-hold protocol to assess CVR in youth, determined via transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). CVR was calculated as the percentage increase in MCAv mean following three breath-hold attempts. This outcome yielded acceptable levels of within and between-day reliability for use in multiple visit experiments to assess CVR in adolescents. Chapter 4 investigated the effect of sugar moiety on cerebrovascular function, measured through breath-hold induced CVR, in adolescents following SSB consumption and a subsequent challenge meal. This study found that the glucose and sucrose drinks resulted in elevated blood glucose levels compared to fructose and water. With consumption of fructose, elevations in uric acid were present, however the sugar moieties all presented similar increases in TAG concentrations following meal consumption. Despite these different metabolic responses, no significant impairments in CVR were present following the drink or challenge meal. Abstract
This thesis demonstrated that consumption of SSBs led to increases in glucose and uric acid concentrations, which have previously been shown to be atherogenic. This thesis also provided data on the reliability of CVR as a non-invasive and easy to administer tool for measurement of endothelial function in youth. This is the first study to demonstrate that breath-hold induced CVR can be reliably measured in youth, as a practical, affordable and non-invasive method. These findings provide valuable data that will inform the implementation and analysis of a breath-hold protocol for reliable CVR assessment in youth in future research. Having established that CVR was reliable within and between-day, it was not possible to determine if it was sensitive to change, with no effects seen on CVR following acute SSB consumption. To build on these findings, future research should explore the acute and chronic effects of SSB consumption, with consideration of measuring a range of different vascular outcomes such as changes in peripheral microvascular and macrovascular functions. As this thesis did not include another measure of peripheral endothelial function, it is not certain whether endothelial function was impaired, or if CVR was not sensitive to change in the present study. In order to determine if CVR is sensitive to change, future investigation is needed with established measures of peripheral endothelial function (i.e. flow mediated dilation) alongside measures of CVR.
Sansum KM, Weston ME, Bond B, Cockcroft EJ, O'Connor A, Tomlinson OW, Williams CA, Barker AR
(2019). Validity of the Supramaximal Test to Verify Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Children and Adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci
Validity of the Supramaximal Test to Verify Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Children and Adolescents.
Purpose: This study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine whether the validity of the supramaximal verification test for maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O2max ) differs in children and adolescents when stratified for sex, body mass, and cardiorespiratory fitness and (2) to assess sensitivity and specificity of primary and secondary objective criteria from the incremental test to verify V˙O2max. Methods: in total, 128 children and adolescents (76 male and 52 females; age: 9.3-17.4 y) performed a ramp-incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer followed by a supramaximal test to verify V˙O2max. Results: Supramaximal tests verified V˙O2max in 88% of participants. Group incremental test peak V˙O2 was greater than the supramaximal test (2.27 [0.65] L·min-1 and 2.17 [0.63] L·min-1; P Abstract
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Aboo Bakkar Z, Fulford J, Gates PE, Jackman SR, Jones AM, Bond B, Bowtell JL
(2018). Prolonged forearm ischemia attenuates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and plasma nitric oxide metabolites in overweight middle-aged men. European Journal of Applied Physiology
Prolonged forearm ischemia attenuates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and plasma nitric oxide metabolites in overweight middle-aged men
Purpose: Repeated cycles of endothelial ischemia–reperfusion injury and the resulting respiratory burst contribute to the irreversible pathophysiology of vascular diseases, and yet, the effects of ischemia reperfusion on vascular function, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have not been assessed simultaneously. Therefore, this study sought to examine the effects of prolonged forearm occlusion and subsequent reperfusion on NO-dependent brachial artery endothelial function. Methods: Flow-mediated dilatation was measured at baseline and 15, 30, and 45 min after 20-min forearm occlusion in 14 healthy, but physically inactive middle-aged men (53.7 ± 1.2 years, BMI: 28.1 ± 0.1 kg m−2). Venous blood samples collected from the occluded arm were analyzed for NO metabolites and markers of oxidative stress. Results: FMD was significantly depressed after the prolonged occlusion compared to baseline, with a significant reduction 15-min post-occlusion (6.6 ± 0.7 to 2.9 ± 0.4%, p < 0.001); FMD remained depressed after 30 min (4.1 ± 0.6%, p = 0.001), but was not significantly different to baseline after 45-min recovery (5.4 ± 0.7%, p = 0.079). Plasma nitrate (main time effect: p = 0.015) and nitrite (main time effect: p = 0.034) concentrations were significantly reduced after prolonged occlusion. Plasma catalase activity was significantly elevated at 4- (p = 0.016) and 45-min (p = 0.001) post-occlusion, but plasma peroxiredoxin 2 and protein carbonyl content did not change. Conclusions: Prolonged forearm occlusion resulted in acute impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of the brachial artery for at least 30 min after reperfusion. We demonstrate that this vascular dysfunction is associated with oxidative stress and reduced NO bioavailability following reperfusion. Abstract
Malik AA, Williams CA, Bond B, Weston KL, Barker AR (2017). Acute cardiorespiratory, perceptual and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval exercise in adolescents. European Journal of Sport Science, 17(10), 1335-1342.
Cockcroft EJ, Moudiotis C, Kitchen J, Bond B, Williams CA, Barker AR
(2017). High-intensity interval exercise and glycemic control in adolescents with type one diabetes mellitus: a case study. Physiol Rep
High-intensity interval exercise and glycemic control in adolescents with type one diabetes mellitus: a case study.
Current physical activity guidelines for youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly supported by empirical evidence and the optimal dose of physical activity to improve glycemic control is unknown. This case report documents the effect of acute high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) on 24-h glycemic control in three adolescents with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring. Results highlight varied individual response to exercise across the participants. In two participants both MIE and HIIE resulted in a drop in blood glucose during exercise (-38 to -42% for MIE and -21-46% in HIIE) and in one participant both MIE and HIIE resulted in increased blood glucose (+19% and + 36%, respectively). Over the 24-h period average blood glucose was lower for all participants in the HIIE condition, and for two for the MIE condition, compared to no exercise. All three participants reported HIIE to be more enjoyable than MIE These data show both HIIE and MIE have the potential to improve short-term glycemic control in youth with T1D but HIIE was more enjoyable. Future work with a larger sample size is required to explore the potential for HIIE to improve health markers in youth with T1D. Abstract
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Bond B, Weston KL, Williams CA, Barker AR
(2017). Perspectives on high-intensity interval exercise for health promotion in children and adolescents. Open Access J Sports Med
Perspectives on high-intensity interval exercise for health promotion in children and adolescents.
Physical activity lowers future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, few children and adolescents achieve the recommended minimum amount of daily activity. Accordingly, there is virtue in identifying the efficacy of small volumes of high-intensity exercise for health benefits in children and adolescents for the primary prevention of CVD risk. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a novel overview of the available literature concerning high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) interventions in children and adolescents. Specifically, the following areas are addressed: 1) outlining the health benefits observed following a single bout of HIIE, 2) reviewing the role of HIIE training in the management of pediatric obesity, and 3) discussing the effectiveness of school-based HIIE training. In total, 39 HIIE intervention studies were included in this review. Based upon the available data, a single bout of high-intensity exercise provides a potent stimulus for favorable, acute changes across a range of cardiometabolic outcomes that are often superior to a comparative bout of moderate-intensity exercise (14 studies reviewed). HIIE also promotes improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic health status in overweight and obese children and adolescents (10 studies reviewed) and when delivered in the school setting (15 studies reviewed). We thus conclude that high-intensity exercise is a feasible and potent method of improving a range of cardiometabolic outcomes in children and adolescents. However, further work is needed to optimize the delivery of HIIE interventions in terms of participant enjoyment and acceptability, to include a wider range of health outcomes, and to control for important confounding variables (eg, changes in diet and habitual physical activity). Finally, research into the application of HIIE training interventions to children and adolescents of different ages, sexes, pubertal status, and sociocultural backgrounds is required. Abstract
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Bond B, Williams CA, Barker AR
(2017). The reliability of a single protocol to determine endothelial, microvascular and autonomic functions in adolescents. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
The reliability of a single protocol to determine endothelial, microvascular and autonomic functions in adolescents
Background: Impairments in macrovascular, microvascular and autonomic function are present in asymptomatic youths with clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study determines the within-day reliability and between-day reliability of a single protocol to non-invasively assess these outcomes in adolescents. Methods: Forty 12- to 15-year-old adolescents (20 boys) visited the laboratory in a fasted state on two occasions, approximately 1 week apart. One hour after a standardized cereal breakfast, macrovascular function was determined via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Heart rate variability (root mean square of successive R-R intervals; RMSSD) was determined from the ECG-gated ultrasound images acquired during the FMD protocol prior to cuff occlusion. Microvascular function was simultaneously quantified as the peak (PRH) and total (TRH) hyperaemic response to occlusion in the cutaneous circulation of the forearm via laser Doppler imaging. To address within-day reliability, a subset of twenty adolescents (10 boys) repeated these measures 90 min afterwards on one occasion. Results: the within-day typical error and between-day typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation of these outcomes are as follows: ratio-scaled FMD, 5·1% and 10·6%; allometrically scaled FMD, 4·4% and 9·4%; PRH, 11% and 13·3%; TRH, 29·9% and 23·1%; and RMSSD, 17·6% and 17·6%. The within- and between-day test–retest correlation coefficients for these outcomes were all significant (r > 0·54 for all). Conclusion: Macrovascular, microvascular and autonomic functions can be simultaneously and non-invasively determined in adolescents using a single protocol with an appropriate degree of reproducibility. Determining these outcomes may provide greater understanding of the progression of cardiovascular disease and aid early intervention. Abstract
Bond B, Williams CA, Jackman SR, Woodward A, Armstrong N, Barker AR
(2015). Accumulating exercise and postprandial health in adolescents. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Accumulating exercise and postprandial health in adolescents
Purpose to examine the influence of exercise intensity on postprandial health outcomes in adolescents when exercise is accumulated throughout the day. Methods 19 adolescents (9 male, 13.7 ± 0.4 years old) completed three 1-day trials in a randomised order: (1) rest (CON); or four bouts of (2) 2 × 1 min cycling at 90% peak power with 75 s recovery (high-intensity interval exercise; HIIE); or (3) cycling at 90% of the gas exchange threshold (moderate-intensity exercise; MIE), which was work-matched to HIIE. Each bout was separated by 2 hours. Participants consumed a high fat milkshake for breakfast and lunch. Postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fat oxidation were assessed throughout the day. Results There was no effect of trial on total area under the curve (TAUC) for TAG (P = 0.87). TAUC-glucose was lower in HIIE compared to CON (P = 0.03, ES = 0.42) and MIE (P = 0.04, ES = 0.41), with no difference between MIE and CON (P = 0.89, ES = 0.04). Postprandial SBP was lower in HIIE compared to CON (P = 0.04, ES = 0.50) and MIE (P = 0.04, ES = 0.40), but not different between MIE and CON (P = 0.52, ES = 0.11). Resting fat oxidation was increased in HIIE compared to CON (P = 0.01, ES = 0.74) and MIE (P = 0.05, ES = 0.51), with no difference between MIE and CON (P = 0.37, ES = 0.24). Conclusion Neither exercise trial attenuated postprandial lipaemia. However, accumulating brief bouts of HIIE, but not MIE, reduced postprandial plasma glucose and SBP, and increased resting fat oxidation in adolescent boys and girls. The intensity of accumulated exercise may therefore have important implications for health outcomes in youth. Abstract
Bond B, Williams CA, Isic C, Jackman SR, Tolfrey K, Barrett LA, Barker AR
(2015). Exercise intensity and postprandial health outcomes in adolescents. European Journal of Applied Physiology
Exercise intensity and postprandial health outcomes in adolescents
Method: Twenty adolescents (10 male, 14.3 ± 0.3 years) completed three 1-day trials: (1) rest (CON); (2) 8 × 1 min cycling at 90 % peak power with 75 s recovery (HIIE); (3) cycling at 90 % of the gas exchange threshold (MIE), 1 h before consuming a high-fat milkshake (1.50 g fat and 80 kJ kg−1). Postprandial TAG, SBP and fat oxidation were assessed over 4 h Abstract
Bond B, Gates PE, Jackman SR, Corless LM, Williams CA, Barker AR
(2015). Exercise intensity and the protection from postprandial vascular dysfunction in adolescents. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol
Exercise intensity and the protection from postprandial vascular dysfunction in adolescents.
Acute exercise transiently improves endothelial function and protects the vasculature from the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal (HFM). We sought to identify whether this response is dependent on exercise intensity in adolescents. Twenty adolescents (10 male, 14.3 ± 0.3 yr) completed three 1-day trials: 1) rest (CON); 2) 8 × 1 min cycling at 90% peak power with 75 s recovery [high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE)]; and 3) cycling at 90% of the gas exchange threshold [moderate-intensity exercise (MIE)] 1 h before consuming a HFM (1.50 g/kg fat). Macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function was assessed before and immediately after exercise and 3 h after the HFM by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and laser Doppler imaging [peak reactive hyperemia (PRH)]. FMD and PRH increased 1 h after HIIE [P < 0.001, effect size (ES) = 1.20 and P = 0.048, ES = 0.56] but were unchanged after MIE. FMD and PRH were attenuated 3 h after the HFM in CON (P < 0.001, ES = 1.78 and P = 0.02, ES = 0.59). FMD remained greater 3 h after the HFM in HIIE compared with MIE (P < 0.001, ES = 1.47) and CON (P < 0.001, ES = 2.54), and in MIE compared with CON (P < 0.001, ES = 1.40). Compared with CON, PRH was greater 3 h after the HFM in HIIE (P = 0.02, ES = 0.71) and MIE (P = 0.02, ES = 0.84), with no differences between HIIE and MIE (P = 0.72, ES = 0.16). Plasma triacylglycerol concentration and total antioxidant status concentration were not different between trials. We conclude that exercise intensity plays an important role in protecting the vasculature from the deleterious effects of a HFM. Performing HIIE may provide superior vascular benefits than MIE in adolescent groups. Abstract
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Bond B, Hind S, Williams CA, Barker AR
(2015). The Acute Effect of Exercise Intensity on Vascular Function in Adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
The Acute Effect of Exercise Intensity on Vascular Function in Adolescents
Introduction: Impairments in vascular function are present in asymptomatic youths with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Exercise can promote vascular health in youth, but the effects of exercise intensity and the time course in response to acute exercise are unknown. Methods: Twenty adolescents (10 male, 14.1 ± 0.3 yr) performed the following on separate days in a counterbalanced order: 1) cycling at 90% of the gas exchange threshold (moderate-intensity exercise (MIE)) and 2) 8 × 1-min cycling at 90% peak power with 75-s recovery (high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE)). The duration of MIE (25.8 ± 2.1 min) was work-matched to HIIE (23.0 min). Macro- and microvascular functions were assessed before, immediately after, and 1 and 2 h after exercise by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and laser Doppler imaging (total reactive hyperemia). Results: FMD was attenuated immediately after HIIE (P < 0.001, effect size (ES) = 1.20) but not after MIE (P = 0.28, ES = 0.26). Compared with that before exercise, FMD was elevated 1 and 2 h after HIIE (P < 0.001, ES = 1.33; P < 0.001, ES = 1.36) but unchanged in MIE (P = 0.67, ES = 0.10; P = 0.72, ES = 0.08). Changes in FMD were unrelated to shear or baseline arterial diameter. Compared with that in preexercise, total reactive hyperemia was always greater after MIE (P < 0.02, ES > 0.60 for all) and HIIE (P < 0.001, ES > 1.18 for all). Total reactive hyperemia was greater in HIIE compared with that in MIE immediately after (P = 0.03, ES = 0.67) and 1 h after (P = 0.01, ES = 0.62) exercise, with a trend to be greater 2 h after (P = 0.06, ES = 0.45). Conclusions: Exercise intensity is positively associated with macro- and microvascular function 1 and 2 h after exercise. Performing HIIE may provide superior vascular benefits than MIE in adolescents. Abstract
Bond B, Cockcroft EJ, Williams CA, Harris S, Gates PE, Jackman SR, Armstrong N, Barker AR
(2015). Two weeks of high-intensity interval training improves novel but not traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Two weeks of high-intensity interval training improves novel but not traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, but no study has identified the influence of HIIT on endothelial and autonomic function in this group. Thirteen 13- to 14-yr-old adolescents (6 girls) completed six HIIT sessions over 2 wk. Each training session consisted of eight to ten 1-min repetitions of cycling at 90% peak power interspersed with 75 s of unloaded cycling. Traditional (triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and blood pressure) and novel [flow-mediated dilation (FMD), heart rate variability (HRV)] CVD risk factors were assessed in a fasted and postprandial state before (PRE), 1 day after (POST-1D), and 3 days after (POST-3D) training. Aerobic fitness was determined PRE and POST-3D. Two weeks of HIIT had no effect on aerobic fitness or traditional CVD risk factors determined in the fasted or postprandial state (P > 0.15). Compared with PRE, fasted FMD was improved POST-1D [P = 0.003, effect size (ES) = 0.70] but not POST-3D (P = 0.32, ES = 0.22). Fasted FMD was greater POST-1D compared with POST-3D (P < 0.04, ES = 0.48). Compared with PRE, postprandial FMD was greater POST-1D (P = 0.001, ES = 1.01) and POST-3D (P < 0.01, ES = 0.60). Fasted HRV was greater POST-1D (P = 0.001, ES = 0.71) and POST-3D (P = 0.02, ES = 0.44). The test meal lowered HRV in all laboratory visits (P < 0.001, ES = 0.59), but there were no differences in postprandial HRV between visits (P > 0.32 for all). Two weeks of HIIT enhanced endothelial function and HRV without improvements in traditional CVD risk factors. However, most of this favorable adaptation was lost POST- 3D, suggesting that regularly performing high-intensity exercise is needed to maintain these benefits. Abstract
Barker AR, Day J, Smith A, Bond B, Williams CA
(2014). The influence of 2 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training on health outcomes in adolescent boys. Journal of Sports Sciences
The influence of 2 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training on health outcomes in adolescent boys
The present study aimed to establish whether 2 weeks of high-intensity interval training would have a beneficial effect on aerobic fitness, fat oxidation, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in healthy adolescent boys. Ten adolescent boys (15.1 ± 0.3 years, 1.3 ± 0.2 years post-estimated peak height velocity) completed six sessions of Wingate-style high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period. The first session consisted of four sprints with training progressed to seven sprints in the final session. High-intensity interval training had a beneficial effect on maximal O2 uptake (mean change, ±90% confidence intervals: 0.19 L · min-1, ±0.19, respectively), on the O2 uptake at the gas exchange threshold (0.09 L · min-1, ±0.13) and on the O2 cost of sub-maximal exercise (-0.04 L · min-1, ±0.04). A beneficial effect on the contribution of lipid (0.06 g · min-1, ±0.06) and carbohydrate (-0.23 g · min-1, ±0.14) oxidation was observed during sub-maximal exercise, but not for the maximal rate of fat oxidation (0.04 g · min-1, ±0.08). Systolic blood pressure (1 mmHg, ±4) and BMI (0.1 kg · m2, ±0.1) were not altered following training. These data demonstrate that meaningful changes in health outcomes are possible in healthy adolescent boys after just six sessions of high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Abstract
Barker AR, Bond B, Toman C, Williams CA, Armstrong N
(2012). Critical power in adolescents: Physiological bases and assessment using all-out exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology
Critical power in adolescents: Physiological bases and assessment using all-out exercise
This study examined whether critical power (CP) in adolescents: (1) provides a landmark for maximal steady-state exercise; and (2) can be determined using 'all-out' exercise. Nine active 14-15 year olds (6 females, 3 males) performed five cycling tests: (1) a ramp test to determine VO 2peak; (2) up to four constant power output tests to determine CP; (3-4) constant power output exercise 10% above and 10% below CP; and (5) a 3 min all-out cycle test to establish the end power (EP) at 90 and 180 s of exercise. All participants completed 30 min of exercise below CP and were characterized by steady-state blood lactate and VO 2 profiles. In contrast, time to exhaustion during exercise above CP was 15.0 ± 7.0 min and characterized by an inexorable rise in blood lactate and a rise, stabilization (∼91% VO 2peak) and fall in VO 2 (∼82% VO 2peak) prior to exhaustion. Eight out of nine participants completed the 3 min test and their EPs at 90 s (148 ± 29 W) and 180 s (146 ± 30 W) were not different from CP (146 ± 27 W) (P = 0.98). The typical error of estimates for establishing CP using EP at 90 s or 180 s of the 3 min test were 25 W (19.7% CV) and 25 W (19.6% CV), respectively. CP in active adolescence provides a valid landmark for maximal steady-state exercise, although its estimation on an individual level using the 3 min all-out test may be of limited value. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Abstract