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Professor Francis Stephens

Professor Francis Stephens

Professor

 2157

 Richards Building RB113

 

Richard's Building, University of Exeter, St Luke's Campus, Heavitree Road, Exeter, EX1 2LU, UK

 Office hours:

Tutorial times Mondays and Fridays 12pm - 1pm.

Overview

I’m fascinated by how our muscles metabolise nutrients when we are physically active and inactive, and why these processes become perturbed as we age or develop diseases such as type 2 diabetes. My PhD and post-doctoral position at The University of Nottingham highlighted for the first time the role of muscle carnitine availability in the regulation of skeletal muscle fat and carbohydrate metabolism in humans. I was then awarded a 5-year Research Councils UK (RCUK) Academic Research Fellowship in Molecular Nutrition in 2008 to investigate the molecular pathways underpinning these observations and determine how they change with age and type 2 diabetes. During this time, I was a key member of the Medical Research Council (MRC)/Arthritis Research UK (ARUK) Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research. I moved to Exeter in 2016 and was promoted to Professor of Exercise Physiology and Metabolism in 2019. My muscle metabolism work has led to the development of various sports nutrition products, which I am conducting research on at present within the newly refurbished state-of-the-art Nutritional Physiology Research Unit. Together with Professor Benjamin Wall, I lead a vibrant Nutritional Physiology Group (https://sshs.exeter.ac.uk/research/integrativephysiology/nutritionalphysiology/) with several Research Fellows, post-doctoral scientists, and post-graduate students. I have authored original peer-reviewed research and review articles in international journals, and several book chapters on skeletal muscle metabolism. I have also been invited to present at numerous international nutrition and physiology conferences and have advised on sports nutrition supplementation studies for elite athletes. 

Links

Research

Research interests

Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity

A reduction in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity occurs with age and obesity and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, one of the biggest health concerns in the developed world. Current projects are focused on how human skeletal muscle becomes insulin resistant, inflexibility in the ability to switch between fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, and the role of carnitine with age, obesity and overfeeding, type 2 diabetes. I am also developing nutritional strategies to reverse the loss of insulin sensitivity with L-carnitine and novel protein and fibre combinations.  

 

Physical inactivity

A major contributor to the reduction in insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance) in the above conditions is physical inactivity and a loss of muscle mass, which also has implications in healthy conditions such as space flight and recovery from injury. Current research is determining the time-course of development of insulin resistance, and associated molecular and muscular adaptations, during inactivity with bed-rest, limb immobilisation, and injury. 

 

Nutritional strategies to improve exercise performance and recovery from exercise

Detailed understanding of how our muscles metabolise nutrients during various type of exercise provides insight into how fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism can be manipulated to improve exercise performance. Current research is utilising such scientific evidence to develop L-carnitine, protein and polyphenols, caffeine, ß-alanine, and polyphenols, mycoprotein, and nucleotides.

 

In vivo physiology techniques

The research described above requires expertise in conducting prolonged (months) experimental (nutrition and exercise) interventions in human volunteers and patients combined with detailed in vivo human physiology measurements utilizing stable isotopic tracer techniques, doppler ultrasound, calorimetry, hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamps, MRI and MRS, and ex vivo molecular, metabolic, and imaging analyses of human muscle biopsy samples. 

Links


Publications

Key publications | Publications by category | Publications by year

Key publications


Tsintzas K, Jones R, Pabla P, Mallinson J, Barrett DA, Kim D-H, Cooper S, Davies A, Taylor T, Chee C, et al (2020). Effect of acute and short-term dietary fat ingestion on postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in middle-aged, overweight, and obese men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 318(3), E417-E429. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Samms RJ, Lewis JE, Norton L, Stephens FB, Gaffney CJ, Butterfield T, Smith DP, Cheng CC, Perfield JW, Adams AC, et al (2017). FGF21 is an Insulin-Dependent Postprandial Hormone in Adult Humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 102(10), 3806-3813. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Shannon CE, Nixon AV, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB (2016). Protein ingestion acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated muscle carnitine uptake in healthy young men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(1), 276-282. Abstract.  Full text.
Chee C, Shannon CE, Burns A, Selby AL, Wilkinson D, Smith K, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB (2016). Relative contribution of intramyocellular lipid to whole-body fat oxidation is reduced with age but subsarcolemmal lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are only associated with overweight individuals. Diabetes, 65(4), 840-850. Abstract.  Full text.
Stephens FB, Chee C, Wall BT, Murton AJ, Shannon CE, van Loon LJC, Tsintzas K (2015). Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with an impaired skeletal muscle protein synthetic response to amino acid ingestion in healthy young men. Diabetes, 64(5), 1615-1620. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

Publications by category


Journal articles

Stephens FB, Shannon CE, Ghasemi R, Greenhaff PL (In Press). Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine availability does not alter the adaptations to high-intensity interval training. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports Full text.
Coelho MOC, Monteyne AJ, Dirks ML, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Wall BT (2021). Daily mycoprotein consumption for 1 week does not affect insulin sensitivity or glycaemic control but modulates the plasma lipidome in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr, 125(2), 147-160. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Burns AM, Nixon A, Mallinson J, Cordon SM, Stephens FB, Greenhaff PL (2021). Immobilisation induces sizeable and sustained reductions in forearm glucose uptake in just 24 h but does not change lipid uptake in healthy men. J Physiol, 599(8), 2197-2210. Abstract.  Author URL.
Pavis GF, Jameson TSO, Dirks ML, Lee BP, Abdelrahman DR, Murton AJ, Porter C, Alamdari N, Mikus CR, Wall BT, et al (2021). Improved recovery from skeletal muscle damage is largely unexplained by myofibrillar protein synthesis or inflammatory and regenerative gene expression pathways. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 320(2), E291-E305. Abstract.  Author URL.
Chee C, Shannon CE, Burns A, Selby AL, Wilkinson D, Smith K, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB (2021). Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine content in older individuals increases whole-body fat oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise. Aging Cell, 20(2). Abstract.  Author URL.
Jameson TSO, Pavis GF, Dirks ML, Lee BP, Abdelrahman DR, Murton AJ, Porter C, Alamdari N, Mikus CR, Wall BT, et al (2021). Reducing NF-κB signalling nutritionally is associated with expedited recovery of skeletal muscle function after damage. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Abstract.
Davies A, Nixon A, Tsintzas K, Stephens FB, Moran GW (2021). Skeletal muscle anabolic and insulin sensitivity responses to a mixed meal in adult patients with active Crohn's disease. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 41, 305-313. Abstract.
Davenport AD, Jameson TSO, Kilroe SP, Monteyne AJ, Pavis GF, Wall BT, Dirks ML, Alamdari N, Mikus CR, Stephens FB, et al (2020). A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Investigating the Optimal Timing of a Caffeine-Containing Supplement for Exercise Performance. Sports Med Open, 6(1). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Monteyne AJ, Dunlop MV, Machin DJ, Coelho MOC, Pavis GF, Porter C, Murton AJ, Abdelrahman DR, Dirks ML, Stephens FB, et al (2020). A mycoprotein-based high-protein vegan diet supports equivalent daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates compared with an isonitrogenous omnivorous diet in older adults: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr, 1-11. Abstract.  Author URL.
Monteyne AJ, Coelho MOC, Porter C, Abdelrahman DR, Jameson TSO, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Dirks ML, Wall BT (2020). Branched-Chain Amino Acid Fortification Does Not Restore Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates following Ingestion of Lower- Compared with Higher-Dose Mycoprotein. J Nutr, 150(11), 2931-2941. Abstract.  Author URL.
Dirks ML, Wall BT, Stephens FB (2020). CrossTalk opposing view: Intramuscular lipid accumulation does not cause insulin resistance. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 598(18), 3807-3810. Author URL.
Tsintzas K, Jones R, Pabla P, Mallinson J, Barrett DA, Kim D-H, Cooper S, Davies A, Taylor T, Chee C, et al (2020). Effect of acute and short-term dietary fat ingestion on postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in middle-aged, overweight, and obese men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 318(3), E417-E429. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Monteyne AJ, Coelho MOC, Porter C, Abdelrahman DR, Jameson TSO, Jackman SR, Blackwell JR, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Dirks ML, et al (2020). Mycoprotein ingestion stimulates protein synthesis rates to a greater extent than milk protein in rested and exercised skeletal muscle of healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 112(2), 318-333. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Dirks ML, Wall BT, Stephens FB (2020). Rebuttal from Marlou L. Dirks, Benjamin T. Wall and Francis B. Stephens. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 598(18), 3813-3814. Author URL.  Full text.
Davies A, Nixon A, Muhammed R, Tsintzas K, Kirkham S, Stephens FB, Moran GW (2020). Reduced skeletal muscle protein balance in paediatric Crohn's disease. Clinical Nutrition, 39(4), 1250-1257. Abstract.  Full text.
Coelho MOC, Monteyne AJ, Kamalanathan ID, Najdanovic-Visak V, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Wall BT (2020). Short-communication: Ingestion of a nucleotide-rich mixed meal increases serum uric acid concentrations but does not affect postprandial blood glucose or serum insulin responses in young adults. Nutrients, 12(4). Abstract.  Full text.
Wall BT, Cruz AM, Otten B, Dunlop MV, Fulford J, Porter C, Abdelrahman DR, Stephens FB, Dirks ML (2020). The Impact of Disuse and High-Fat Overfeeding on Forearm Muscle Amino Acid Metabolism in Humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 105(7), e2547-e2562. Abstract.  Full text.
Waldauf P, Gojda J, Urban T, Hrušková N, Blahutová B, Hejnová M, Jiroutková K, Fric M, Jánský P, Kukulová J, et al (2019). Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycle ergometry in the critically ill: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 20(1). Abstract.  Full text.
Dirks ML, Wall BT, Otten B, Cruz AM, Dunlop MV, Barker AR, Stephens FB (2019). High-fat Overfeeding Does Not Exacerbate Rapid Changes in Forearm Glucose and Fatty Acid Balance During Immobilization. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 105(1), 276-289. Abstract.  Full text.
Coelho M, Monteyne A, Dunlop M, Harris H, Morrison D, Stephens F, Wall B (2019). Mycoprotein as a possible alternative source of dietary protein to support muscle and metabolic health. Nutrition Reviews Full text.
Finnigan TJA, Wall BT, Wilde PJ, Stephens FB, Taylor SL, Freedman MR (2019). Mycoprotein: the Future of Nutritious Nonmeat Protein, a Symposium Review. Curr Dev Nutr, 3(6). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Dirks ML, Stephens FB, Jackman SR, Gordo J, Machin D, Pulsford R, van Loon L, Wall B (2018). A single day of bed rest, irrespective of energy balance, does not affect skeletal muscle gene expression or insulin sensitivity. Experimental Physiology, 103(6), 860-875. Full text.
Stephens FB (2018). Does skeletal muscle carnitine availability influence fuel selection during exercise?. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 77(1), 11-19. Abstract.  Full text.
Parmar B, Lewis JE, Samms RJ, Ebling FJP, Cheng CC, Adams AC, Mallinson J, Cooper S, Taylor T, Ghasemi R, et al (2018). Eccentric exercise increases circulating fibroblast activation protein α but not bioactive fibroblast growth factor 21 in healthy humans. Exp Physiol, 103(6), 876-883. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Stephens FB, Tsintzas K (2018). Metabolic and molecular changes associated with the increased skeletal muscle insulin action 24-48 h after exercise in young and old humans. Biochem Soc Trans, 46(1), 111-118. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Murton AJ, Maddocks M, Stephens FB, Marimuthu K, England R, Wilcock A (2017). Consequences of Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cachexia on Muscle Metabolic Processes. Clin Lung Cancer, 18(1), e1-e11. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Gaffney CJ, Mansell P, Stephens FB, Macdonald IA, Tsintzas K (2017). Exercise Metabolism in Nonobese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Following the Acute Restoration of Normoglycaemia. J Diabetes Res, 2017 Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Samms RJ, Lewis JE, Norton L, Stephens FB, Gaffney CJ, Butterfield T, Smith DP, Cheng CC, Perfield JW, Adams AC, et al (2017). FGF21 is an Insulin-Dependent Postprandial Hormone in Adult Humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 102(10), 3806-3813. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Tsintzas K, Stephens FB, Snijders T, Wall BT, Cooper S, Mallinson J, Verdijk LB, van Loon LJC (2017). Intramyocellular lipid content and lipogenic gene expression responses following a single bout of resistance type exercise differ between young and older men. Exp Gerontol, 93, 36-45. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Shannon CE, Nixon AV, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB (2016). Protein ingestion acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated muscle carnitine uptake in healthy young men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(1), 276-282. Abstract.  Full text.
Chee C, Shannon CE, Burns A, Selby AL, Wilkinson D, Smith K, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB (2016). Relative contribution of intramyocellular lipid to whole-body fat oxidation is reduced with age but subsarcolemmal lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are only associated with overweight individuals. Diabetes, 65(4), 840-850. Abstract.  Full text.
Chee C, Mansell P, Stephens F, Cordon S, Kaviani M, Hoad C, Bawden S, Gowland P, Macdonald I (2016). The effects of hyperenergetic carbohydrate vs fat diets on liver fat content and insulin sensitivity in overweight healthy males. DIABETIC MEDICINE, 33, 29-29. Author URL.
Murton AJ, Stephens FB, Billeter R, Wall BT (2015). COMMENTARY RESPONSE TO VIEWPOINT: "WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE MEASURES OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND CHANGES IN MUSCLE MASS?". JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 118(4), 500-500. Author URL.
Atherton PJ, Phillips BE, Brook MS, Wilkinson DJ, Smith K, Etheridge TE, Miller BF, Hamilton KL, Burd NA, Beals JW, et al (2015). Commentaries on Viewpoint: What is the relationship between acute measure of muscle protein synthesis and changes in muscle mass?. J Appl Physiol (1985), 118(4), 498-503. Author URL.
Stephens FB, Chee C, Wall BT, Murton AJ, Shannon CE, van Loon LJC, Tsintzas K (2015). Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with an impaired skeletal muscle protein synthetic response to amino acid ingestion in healthy young men. Diabetes, 64(5), 1615-1620. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Constantin-Teodosiu D, Stephens FB, Greenhaff PL (2015). Perpetual muscle PDH activation in PDH kinase knockout mice protects against high-fat feeding-induced muscle insulin resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(8).
Wall BT, Dirks ML, Snijders T, Stephens FB, Senden JMG, Verscheijden M-L, van Loon LJC (2015). Short-term muscle disuse atrophy is not associated with increased intramuscular lipid deposition or a decline in the maximal activity of key mitochondrial enzymes in young and older males. Exp Gerontol, 61, 76-83. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Murton A, Chee C, Wall B, van Loon L, Tsintzas K, Stephens F (2014). Acute lipid administration inhibits amino acid induced phosphorylation of translation repressor 4E-BP1 in human muscle in an apparent mTOR independent manner. FASEB JOURNAL, 28(1). Author URL.
Stephens FB, Mendis B, Shannon CE, Cooper S, Ortori CA, Barrett DA, Mansell P, Tsintzas K (2014). Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids partially prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle without limiting acylcarnitine accumulation. Clinical Science, 127(5), 315-322. Abstract.  Full text.
Stephens F, Chee C, Wall B, Murton A, van Loon L, Tsintzas K (2014). Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with impaired muscle protein synthetic response to amino acid ingestion in healthy young men. FASEB JOURNAL, 28(1). Author URL.
Shannon C, Nixon A, Greenhaff P, Stephens F (2014). Protein ingestion impairs insulin-stimulated net muscle carnitine uptake in healthy young men. FASEB JOURNAL, 28(1). Author URL.
Wall B, Dirks M, Snijders T, Stephens F, Senden J, van Loon L (2014). Short-term muscle disuse atrophy is not associated with increased skeletal muscle lipid accumulation or impaired oxidative enzyme activity in young or old men. FASEB JOURNAL, 28(1). Author URL.
Murton AJ, Billeter R, Stephens FB, Des Etages SG, Graber F, Hill RJ, Marimuthu K, Greenhaff PL (2014). Transient transcriptional events in human skeletal muscle at the outset of concentric resistance exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(1), 113-125. Abstract.
Gunnarsson TP, Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Christensen PM, Lesivig B, Madsen K, Stephens F, Greenhaff P, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J, et al (2013). Effect of whey protein- and carbohydrate-enriched diet on glycogen resynthesis during the first 48 h after a soccer game. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 23(4), 508-515. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gunnarsson TP, Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Christensen PM, Lesivig B, Madsen K, Stephens F, Greenhaff P, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J, et al (2013). Effect of whey protein- and carbohydrate-enriched diet on glycogen resynthesis during the first 48h after a soccer game. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 23(4), 508-515. Abstract.
Tsintzas K, Norton L, Chokkalingam K, Nizamani N, Cooper S, Stephens F, Billeter R, Bennett A (2013). Independent and combined effects of acute physiological hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on metabolic gene expression in human skeletal muscle. Clinical Science, 124(11), 675-684. Abstract.
Stephens F (2013). REVISITING THE ERGOGENIC PROPERTIES OF L-CARNITINE. ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM, 63, 30-31. Author URL.
Wall BT, Stephens FB, van Loon LJC, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2013). Reduced fat oxidation during high intensity, submaximal exercise: is the availability of carnitine important?. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(2), 191-199. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Wall BT, Marimuthu K, Shannon CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2013). Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans. Journal of Physiology, 591(18), 4655-4666. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Wall BT, Marimuthu K, Shannon CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2013). Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans. J Physiol, 591(18), 4655-4666. Abstract.  Author URL.
Wall BT, Stephens FB, Marimuthu K, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2012). Acute pantothenic acid and cysteine supplementation does not affect muscle coenzyme a content, fuel selection, or exercise performance in healthy humans. J Appl Physiol (1985), 112(2), 272-278. Abstract.  Author URL.
Awad S, Stephens F, Shannon C, Lobo DN (2012). Perioperative perturbations in carnitine metabolism are attenuated by preoperative carbohydrate treatment: Another mechanism by which preoperative feeding may attenuate development of postoperative insulin resistance. Clinical Nutrition, 31(5), 717-720. Abstract.
Constantin-Teodosiu D, Constantin D, Stephens F, Laithwaite D, Greenhaff PL (2012). The role of FOXO and PPAR transcription factors in diet-mediated inhibition of PDC activation and carbohydrate oxidation during exercise in humans and the role of pharmacological activation of PDC in overriding these changes. Diabetes, 61(5), 1017-1024. Abstract.
Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2011). Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol, 589(Pt 4), 963-973. Abstract.  Author URL.
Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2011). Chronic oral ingestion of l-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology, 589(4), 963-973. Abstract.
Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2011). Increasing muscle carnitine content alters muscle fuel metabolism and improves exercise performance in humans. JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SPORTS MEDICINE, 60(1), 85-85. Author URL.
Krustrup P, Ortenblad N, Nielsen J, Nybo L, Gunnarsson TP, Iaia FM, Madsen K, Stephens F, Greenhaff P, Bangsbo J, et al (2011). Maximal voluntary contraction force, SR function and glycogen resynthesis during the first 72 h after a high-level competitive soccer game. Eur J Appl Physiol, 111(12), 2987-2995. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stephens FB, Marimuthu K, Cheng Y, Patel N, Constantin D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL (2011). Vegetarians have a reduced skeletal muscle carnitine transport capacity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(3), 938-944. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Norton L, Jewell K, Chokkalingam K, Parr T, Tsintzas K (2010). Basal and insulin-stimulated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation, glycogen synthesis and metabolic gene expression in human skeletal muscle the day after a single bout of exercise. Experimental Physiology, 95(7), 808-818. Abstract.
Stephens FB (2010). New developments in sports nutrition. Food Science and Technology, 24(2), 31-33. Abstract.
Burke LM, Castell LM, Stear SJ, Rogers PJ, Blomstrand E, Gurr S, Mitchell N, Stephens FB, Greenhaff PL (2009). BJSM reviews: A-Z of nutritional supplements: Dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance Part 4. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(14), 1088-1090.
Stephens FB, Roig M, Armstrong G, Greenhaff PL (2008). Post-exercise ingestion of a unique, high molecular weight glucose polymer solution improves performance during a subsequent bout of cycling exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(2), 149-154. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL (2007). A central role for carnitine in the in vivo regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. AMINO ACIDS, 33(3), LX-LX. Author URL.
Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Laithwaite D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL (2007). A threshold exists for the stimulatory effect of insulin on plasma L-carnitine clearance in humans. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 292(2). Abstract.
Stephens FB, Evans CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL (2007). Carbohydrate ingestion augments L-carnitine retention in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 102(3), 1065-1070. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Constantin-teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL (2007). New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology, 581(2), 431-444. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Laithwaite D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL (2006). An acute increase in skeletal muscle carnitine content alters fuel metabolism in resting human skeletal muscle. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91(12), 5013-5018. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Laithwaite D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL (2006). Insulin stimulates L-carnitine accumulation in human skeletal muscle. FASEB Journal, 20(2), 377-379.

Chapters

Stephens F (2016). Skeletal muscle carnitine transport. In  (Ed) Carnitine Metabolism and Human Nutrition, 51-62.
Stephens FB, Greenhaff PL (2013). Creatine. In  (Ed) Sports Nutrition, 301-312.

Conferences

Jameson TSO, Pavis GF, Dirks ML, Wall BT, Mikus C, Alamdari N, Stephens FB (2019). Post-exercise and Pre-sleep Protein-polyphenol Supplementation Improves Recovery Following Muscle-damaging Eccentric Exercise: Preliminary Findings.  Author URL.
Moran G, Walker A, Nixon A, Devadason D, Muhammed R, Tsintzas K, Kirkham S, Stephens F (2018). PAEDIATRIC CROHN'S DISEASE PATIENTS IN REMISSION HAVE a REDUCED SKELETAL MUSCLE PROTEIN BALANCE AFTER FEEDING.  Author URL.
Walker A, Nixon A, Cordon S, Marshall M, Yeo M, Devadason D, Muhammed R, Tsintzas K, Kirkham S, Stephens F, et al (2018). Paediatric Crohn's disease patients in remission have a reduced skeletal muscle protein balance after feeding.  Author URL.
Coelho M, Monteyne AJ, Dirks ML, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Wall BT (2018). Substituting meat/fish for mycoprotein for one week does not affect indices of metabolic health irrespective of dietary nucleotide load or serum uric acid concentrations in healthy young adults.  Author URL.
Stephens FB, Gaffney CJ, Mansell P, Greenhaff PL, Tsintzas K (2017). Dietary fat oxidation is elevated in middle-aged type 2 diabetes.  Author URL.  Full text.
Burns A, Nixon A, Stephens F, Francis S, Gowland P, Greenhaff P (2016). Novel Insight Regarding the Trajectory and Time-course of Immobilisation Induced Impairment of Limb Glucose Uptake in Healthy Volunteers.  Author URL.  Full text.
Chee C, Mansell P, Stephens F, Cordon S, Kavani M, Bawden S, Hoad C, Gowland P, Macdonald I (2015). Differential effects of carbohydrate vs fat overfeeding on liver fat content and lipid metabolism in healthy overweight males.  Author URL.
Stephens FB, Galloway SDR (2013). Carnitine and fat oxidation.  Abstract.
Awad S, Stephens F, Shannon C, Lobo DN (2012). Carnitine, pre-operative carbohydrate loading and post-operative insulin resistance: a potential mechanism.  Author URL.
Stephens F, Wall B, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald I, Greenhaff P (2011). Elevating skeletal muscle total carnitine content increases the expression of genes regulating fat metabolism in humans.  Author URL.
Murton AJ, Billeter-Clark R, Stephens F, Marimuthu K, Greenhaff P (2011). The magnitude of exercise-induced change in the muscle transcriptome is related to the scale of muscle damage in humans.  Author URL.
Stephens F, Constantin-Teodosiu T, Greenhaff P (2004). Insulin stimulates L-carnitine retention in humans.  Author URL.

Publications by year


In Press

Stephens FB, Shannon CE, Ghasemi R, Greenhaff PL (In Press). Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine availability does not alter the adaptations to high-intensity interval training. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports Full text.

2021

Coelho MOC, Monteyne AJ, Dirks ML, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Wall BT (2021). Daily mycoprotein consumption for 1 week does not affect insulin sensitivity or glycaemic control but modulates the plasma lipidome in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr, 125(2), 147-160. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Burns AM, Nixon A, Mallinson J, Cordon SM, Stephens FB, Greenhaff PL (2021). Immobilisation induces sizeable and sustained reductions in forearm glucose uptake in just 24 h but does not change lipid uptake in healthy men. J Physiol, 599(8), 2197-2210. Abstract.  Author URL.
Pavis GF, Jameson TSO, Dirks ML, Lee BP, Abdelrahman DR, Murton AJ, Porter C, Alamdari N, Mikus CR, Wall BT, et al (2021). Improved recovery from skeletal muscle damage is largely unexplained by myofibrillar protein synthesis or inflammatory and regenerative gene expression pathways. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 320(2), E291-E305. Abstract.  Author URL.
Chee C, Shannon CE, Burns A, Selby AL, Wilkinson D, Smith K, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB (2021). Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine content in older individuals increases whole-body fat oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise. Aging Cell, 20(2). Abstract.  Author URL.
Jameson TSO, Pavis GF, Dirks ML, Lee BP, Abdelrahman DR, Murton AJ, Porter C, Alamdari N, Mikus CR, Wall BT, et al (2021). Reducing NF-κB signalling nutritionally is associated with expedited recovery of skeletal muscle function after damage. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Abstract.
Davies A, Nixon A, Tsintzas K, Stephens FB, Moran GW (2021). Skeletal muscle anabolic and insulin sensitivity responses to a mixed meal in adult patients with active Crohn's disease. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 41, 305-313. Abstract.

2020

Davenport AD, Jameson TSO, Kilroe SP, Monteyne AJ, Pavis GF, Wall BT, Dirks ML, Alamdari N, Mikus CR, Stephens FB, et al (2020). A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Investigating the Optimal Timing of a Caffeine-Containing Supplement for Exercise Performance. Sports Med Open, 6(1). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Monteyne AJ, Dunlop MV, Machin DJ, Coelho MOC, Pavis GF, Porter C, Murton AJ, Abdelrahman DR, Dirks ML, Stephens FB, et al (2020). A mycoprotein-based high-protein vegan diet supports equivalent daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates compared with an isonitrogenous omnivorous diet in older adults: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr, 1-11. Abstract.  Author URL.
Monteyne AJ, Coelho MOC, Porter C, Abdelrahman DR, Jameson TSO, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Dirks ML, Wall BT (2020). Branched-Chain Amino Acid Fortification Does Not Restore Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates following Ingestion of Lower- Compared with Higher-Dose Mycoprotein. J Nutr, 150(11), 2931-2941. Abstract.  Author URL.
Dirks ML, Wall BT, Stephens FB (2020). CrossTalk opposing view: Intramuscular lipid accumulation does not cause insulin resistance. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 598(18), 3807-3810. Author URL.
Tsintzas K, Jones R, Pabla P, Mallinson J, Barrett DA, Kim D-H, Cooper S, Davies A, Taylor T, Chee C, et al (2020). Effect of acute and short-term dietary fat ingestion on postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in middle-aged, overweight, and obese men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 318(3), E417-E429. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Machin D (2020). Investigating the optimisation of the ergogenic effects of L-carnitine supplementation in humans.  Abstract.  Full text.
Monteyne AJ, Coelho MOC, Porter C, Abdelrahman DR, Jameson TSO, Jackman SR, Blackwell JR, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Dirks ML, et al (2020). Mycoprotein ingestion stimulates protein synthesis rates to a greater extent than milk protein in rested and exercised skeletal muscle of healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 112(2), 318-333. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Dirks ML, Wall BT, Stephens FB (2020). Rebuttal from Marlou L. Dirks, Benjamin T. Wall and Francis B. Stephens. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 598(18), 3813-3814. Author URL.  Full text.
Davies A, Nixon A, Muhammed R, Tsintzas K, Kirkham S, Stephens FB, Moran GW (2020). Reduced skeletal muscle protein balance in paediatric Crohn's disease. Clinical Nutrition, 39(4), 1250-1257. Abstract.  Full text.
Jameson T, Stephens F (2020). Reducing transcriptional NF-κB signalling nutritionally is associated with expedited recovery of skeletal muscle function after damage.  Full text.
Coelho MOC, Monteyne AJ, Kamalanathan ID, Najdanovic-Visak V, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Wall BT (2020). Short-communication: Ingestion of a nucleotide-rich mixed meal increases serum uric acid concentrations but does not affect postprandial blood glucose or serum insulin responses in young adults. Nutrients, 12(4). Abstract.  Full text.
Wall BT, Cruz AM, Otten B, Dunlop MV, Fulford J, Porter C, Abdelrahman DR, Stephens FB, Dirks ML (2020). The Impact of Disuse and High-Fat Overfeeding on Forearm Muscle Amino Acid Metabolism in Humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 105(7), e2547-e2562. Abstract.  Full text.

2019

Waldauf P, Gojda J, Urban T, Hrušková N, Blahutová B, Hejnová M, Jiroutková K, Fric M, Jánský P, Kukulová J, et al (2019). Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycle ergometry in the critically ill: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 20(1). Abstract.  Full text.
Dirks ML, Wall BT, Otten B, Cruz AM, Dunlop MV, Barker AR, Stephens FB (2019). High-fat Overfeeding Does Not Exacerbate Rapid Changes in Forearm Glucose and Fatty Acid Balance During Immobilization. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 105(1), 276-289. Abstract.  Full text.
Coelho M, Monteyne A, Dunlop M, Harris H, Morrison D, Stephens F, Wall B (2019). Mycoprotein as a possible alternative source of dietary protein to support muscle and metabolic health. Nutrition Reviews Full text.
Finnigan TJA, Wall BT, Wilde PJ, Stephens FB, Taylor SL, Freedman MR (2019). Mycoprotein: the Future of Nutritious Nonmeat Protein, a Symposium Review. Curr Dev Nutr, 3(6). Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Jameson TSO, Pavis GF, Dirks ML, Wall BT, Mikus C, Alamdari N, Stephens FB (2019). Post-exercise and Pre-sleep Protein-polyphenol Supplementation Improves Recovery Following Muscle-damaging Eccentric Exercise: Preliminary Findings.  Author URL.

2018

Dirks ML, Stephens FB, Jackman SR, Gordo J, Machin D, Pulsford R, van Loon L, Wall B (2018). A single day of bed rest, irrespective of energy balance, does not affect skeletal muscle gene expression or insulin sensitivity. Experimental Physiology, 103(6), 860-875. Full text.
Stephens FB (2018). Does skeletal muscle carnitine availability influence fuel selection during exercise?. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 77(1), 11-19. Abstract.  Full text.
Parmar B, Lewis JE, Samms RJ, Ebling FJP, Cheng CC, Adams AC, Mallinson J, Cooper S, Taylor T, Ghasemi R, et al (2018). Eccentric exercise increases circulating fibroblast activation protein α but not bioactive fibroblast growth factor 21 in healthy humans. Exp Physiol, 103(6), 876-883. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Stephens FB, Tsintzas K (2018). Metabolic and molecular changes associated with the increased skeletal muscle insulin action 24-48 h after exercise in young and old humans. Biochem Soc Trans, 46(1), 111-118. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Moran G, Walker A, Nixon A, Devadason D, Muhammed R, Tsintzas K, Kirkham S, Stephens F (2018). PAEDIATRIC CROHN'S DISEASE PATIENTS IN REMISSION HAVE a REDUCED SKELETAL MUSCLE PROTEIN BALANCE AFTER FEEDING.  Author URL.
Walker A, Nixon A, Cordon S, Marshall M, Yeo M, Devadason D, Muhammed R, Tsintzas K, Kirkham S, Stephens F, et al (2018). Paediatric Crohn's disease patients in remission have a reduced skeletal muscle protein balance after feeding.  Author URL.
Coelho M, Monteyne AJ, Dirks ML, Finnigan TJA, Stephens FB, Wall BT (2018). Substituting meat/fish for mycoprotein for one week does not affect indices of metabolic health irrespective of dietary nucleotide load or serum uric acid concentrations in healthy young adults.  Author URL.

2017

Murton AJ, Maddocks M, Stephens FB, Marimuthu K, England R, Wilcock A (2017). Consequences of Late-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cachexia on Muscle Metabolic Processes. Clin Lung Cancer, 18(1), e1-e11. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Stephens FB, Gaffney CJ, Mansell P, Greenhaff PL, Tsintzas K (2017). Dietary fat oxidation is elevated in middle-aged type 2 diabetes.  Author URL.  Full text.
Gaffney CJ, Mansell P, Stephens FB, Macdonald IA, Tsintzas K (2017). Exercise Metabolism in Nonobese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Following the Acute Restoration of Normoglycaemia. J Diabetes Res, 2017 Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Samms RJ, Lewis JE, Norton L, Stephens FB, Gaffney CJ, Butterfield T, Smith DP, Cheng CC, Perfield JW, Adams AC, et al (2017). FGF21 is an Insulin-Dependent Postprandial Hormone in Adult Humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 102(10), 3806-3813. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Tsintzas K, Stephens FB, Snijders T, Wall BT, Cooper S, Mallinson J, Verdijk LB, van Loon LJC (2017). Intramyocellular lipid content and lipogenic gene expression responses following a single bout of resistance type exercise differ between young and older men. Exp Gerontol, 93, 36-45. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

2016

Burns A, Nixon A, Stephens F, Francis S, Gowland P, Greenhaff P (2016). Novel Insight Regarding the Trajectory and Time-course of Immobilisation Induced Impairment of Limb Glucose Uptake in Healthy Volunteers.  Author URL.  Full text.
Shannon CE, Nixon AV, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB (2016). Protein ingestion acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated muscle carnitine uptake in healthy young men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(1), 276-282. Abstract.  Full text.
Chee C, Shannon CE, Burns A, Selby AL, Wilkinson D, Smith K, Greenhaff PL, Stephens FB (2016). Relative contribution of intramyocellular lipid to whole-body fat oxidation is reduced with age but subsarcolemmal lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are only associated with overweight individuals. Diabetes, 65(4), 840-850. Abstract.  Full text.
Stephens F (2016). Skeletal muscle carnitine transport. In  (Ed) Carnitine Metabolism and Human Nutrition, 51-62.
Chee C, Mansell P, Stephens F, Cordon S, Kaviani M, Hoad C, Bawden S, Gowland P, Macdonald I (2016). The effects of hyperenergetic carbohydrate vs fat diets on liver fat content and insulin sensitivity in overweight healthy males. DIABETIC MEDICINE, 33, 29-29. Author URL.

2015

Murton AJ, Stephens FB, Billeter R, Wall BT (2015). COMMENTARY RESPONSE TO VIEWPOINT: "WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE MEASURES OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND CHANGES IN MUSCLE MASS?". JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 118(4), 500-500. Author URL.
Atherton PJ, Phillips BE, Brook MS, Wilkinson DJ, Smith K, Etheridge TE, Miller BF, Hamilton KL, Burd NA, Beals JW, et al (2015). Commentaries on Viewpoint: What is the relationship between acute measure of muscle protein synthesis and changes in muscle mass?. J Appl Physiol (1985), 118(4), 498-503. Author URL.
Chee C, Mansell P, Stephens F, Cordon S, Kavani M, Bawden S, Hoad C, Gowland P, Macdonald I (2015). Differential effects of carbohydrate vs fat overfeeding on liver fat content and lipid metabolism in healthy overweight males.  Author URL.
Stephens FB, Chee C, Wall BT, Murton AJ, Shannon CE, van Loon LJC, Tsintzas K (2015). Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with an impaired skeletal muscle protein synthetic response to amino acid ingestion in healthy young men. Diabetes, 64(5), 1615-1620. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.
Constantin-Teodosiu D, Stephens FB, Greenhaff PL (2015). Perpetual muscle PDH activation in PDH kinase knockout mice protects against high-fat feeding-induced muscle insulin resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(8).
Wall BT, Dirks ML, Snijders T, Stephens FB, Senden JMG, Verscheijden M-L, van Loon LJC (2015). Short-term muscle disuse atrophy is not associated with increased intramuscular lipid deposition or a decline in the maximal activity of key mitochondrial enzymes in young and older males. Exp Gerontol, 61, 76-83. Abstract.  Author URL.  Full text.

2014

Murton A, Chee C, Wall B, van Loon L, Tsintzas K, Stephens F (2014). Acute lipid administration inhibits amino acid induced phosphorylation of translation repressor 4E-BP1 in human muscle in an apparent mTOR independent manner. FASEB JOURNAL, 28(1). Author URL.
Stephens FB, Mendis B, Shannon CE, Cooper S, Ortori CA, Barrett DA, Mansell P, Tsintzas K (2014). Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids partially prevent lipid-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle without limiting acylcarnitine accumulation. Clinical Science, 127(5), 315-322. Abstract.  Full text.
Stephens F, Chee C, Wall B, Murton A, van Loon L, Tsintzas K (2014). Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with impaired muscle protein synthetic response to amino acid ingestion in healthy young men. FASEB JOURNAL, 28(1). Author URL.
Shannon C, Nixon A, Greenhaff P, Stephens F (2014). Protein ingestion impairs insulin-stimulated net muscle carnitine uptake in healthy young men. FASEB JOURNAL, 28(1). Author URL.
Wall B, Dirks M, Snijders T, Stephens F, Senden J, van Loon L (2014). Short-term muscle disuse atrophy is not associated with increased skeletal muscle lipid accumulation or impaired oxidative enzyme activity in young or old men. FASEB JOURNAL, 28(1). Author URL.
Murton AJ, Billeter R, Stephens FB, Des Etages SG, Graber F, Hill RJ, Marimuthu K, Greenhaff PL (2014). Transient transcriptional events in human skeletal muscle at the outset of concentric resistance exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(1), 113-125. Abstract.

2013

Stephens FB, Galloway SDR (2013). Carnitine and fat oxidation.  Abstract.
Stephens FB, Greenhaff PL (2013). Creatine. In  (Ed) Sports Nutrition, 301-312.
Gunnarsson TP, Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Christensen PM, Lesivig B, Madsen K, Stephens F, Greenhaff P, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J, et al (2013). Effect of whey protein- and carbohydrate-enriched diet on glycogen resynthesis during the first 48 h after a soccer game. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 23(4), 508-515. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gunnarsson TP, Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Christensen PM, Lesivig B, Madsen K, Stephens F, Greenhaff P, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J, et al (2013). Effect of whey protein- and carbohydrate-enriched diet on glycogen resynthesis during the first 48h after a soccer game. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 23(4), 508-515. Abstract.
Tsintzas K, Norton L, Chokkalingam K, Nizamani N, Cooper S, Stephens F, Billeter R, Bennett A (2013). Independent and combined effects of acute physiological hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia on metabolic gene expression in human skeletal muscle. Clinical Science, 124(11), 675-684. Abstract.
Stephens F (2013). REVISITING THE ERGOGENIC PROPERTIES OF L-CARNITINE. ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM, 63, 30-31. Author URL.
Wall BT, Stephens FB, van Loon LJC, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2013). Reduced fat oxidation during high intensity, submaximal exercise: is the availability of carnitine important?. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(2), 191-199. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Wall BT, Marimuthu K, Shannon CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2013). Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans. Journal of Physiology, 591(18), 4655-4666. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Wall BT, Marimuthu K, Shannon CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2013). Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans. J Physiol, 591(18), 4655-4666. Abstract.  Author URL.

2012

Wall BT, Stephens FB, Marimuthu K, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2012). Acute pantothenic acid and cysteine supplementation does not affect muscle coenzyme a content, fuel selection, or exercise performance in healthy humans. J Appl Physiol (1985), 112(2), 272-278. Abstract.  Author URL.
Awad S, Stephens F, Shannon C, Lobo DN (2012). Carnitine, pre-operative carbohydrate loading and post-operative insulin resistance: a potential mechanism.  Author URL.
Awad S, Stephens F, Shannon C, Lobo DN (2012). Perioperative perturbations in carnitine metabolism are attenuated by preoperative carbohydrate treatment: Another mechanism by which preoperative feeding may attenuate development of postoperative insulin resistance. Clinical Nutrition, 31(5), 717-720. Abstract.
Constantin-Teodosiu D, Constantin D, Stephens F, Laithwaite D, Greenhaff PL (2012). The role of FOXO and PPAR transcription factors in diet-mediated inhibition of PDC activation and carbohydrate oxidation during exercise in humans and the role of pharmacological activation of PDC in overriding these changes. Diabetes, 61(5), 1017-1024. Abstract.

2011

Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2011). Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol, 589(Pt 4), 963-973. Abstract.  Author URL.
Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2011). Chronic oral ingestion of l-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology, 589(4), 963-973. Abstract.
Stephens F, Wall B, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald I, Greenhaff P (2011). Elevating skeletal muscle total carnitine content increases the expression of genes regulating fat metabolism in humans.  Author URL.
Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL (2011). Increasing muscle carnitine content alters muscle fuel metabolism and improves exercise performance in humans. JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SPORTS MEDICINE, 60(1), 85-85. Author URL.
Krustrup P, Ortenblad N, Nielsen J, Nybo L, Gunnarsson TP, Iaia FM, Madsen K, Stephens F, Greenhaff P, Bangsbo J, et al (2011). Maximal voluntary contraction force, SR function and glycogen resynthesis during the first 72 h after a high-level competitive soccer game. Eur J Appl Physiol, 111(12), 2987-2995. Abstract.  Author URL.
Murton AJ, Billeter-Clark R, Stephens F, Marimuthu K, Greenhaff P (2011). The magnitude of exercise-induced change in the muscle transcriptome is related to the scale of muscle damage in humans.  Author URL.
Stephens FB, Marimuthu K, Cheng Y, Patel N, Constantin D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL (2011). Vegetarians have a reduced skeletal muscle carnitine transport capacity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(3), 938-944. Abstract.

2010

Stephens FB, Norton L, Jewell K, Chokkalingam K, Parr T, Tsintzas K (2010). Basal and insulin-stimulated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation, glycogen synthesis and metabolic gene expression in human skeletal muscle the day after a single bout of exercise. Experimental Physiology, 95(7), 808-818. Abstract.
Stephens FB (2010). New developments in sports nutrition. Food Science and Technology, 24(2), 31-33. Abstract.

2009

Burke LM, Castell LM, Stear SJ, Rogers PJ, Blomstrand E, Gurr S, Mitchell N, Stephens FB, Greenhaff PL (2009). BJSM reviews: A-Z of nutritional supplements: Dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance Part 4. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(14), 1088-1090.

2008

Stephens FB, Roig M, Armstrong G, Greenhaff PL (2008). Post-exercise ingestion of a unique, high molecular weight glucose polymer solution improves performance during a subsequent bout of cycling exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(2), 149-154. Abstract.

2007

Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL (2007). A central role for carnitine in the in vivo regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. AMINO ACIDS, 33(3), LX-LX. Author URL.
Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Laithwaite D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL (2007). A threshold exists for the stimulatory effect of insulin on plasma L-carnitine clearance in humans. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 292(2). Abstract.
Stephens FB, Evans CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL (2007). Carbohydrate ingestion augments L-carnitine retention in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 102(3), 1065-1070. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Constantin-teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL (2007). New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology, 581(2), 431-444. Abstract.

2006

Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Laithwaite D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL (2006). An acute increase in skeletal muscle carnitine content alters fuel metabolism in resting human skeletal muscle. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91(12), 5013-5018. Abstract.
Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Laithwaite D, Simpson EJ, Greenhaff PL (2006). Insulin stimulates L-carnitine accumulation in human skeletal muscle. FASEB Journal, 20(2), 377-379.

2004

Stephens F, Constantin-Teodosiu T, Greenhaff P (2004). Insulin stimulates L-carnitine retention in humans.  Author URL.

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